1. The main sources of the story are Myriam Harry’s books – ‘The Conquest of Jerusalem’ (1903) and ‘The little daughter of Jerusalem’ (1914) and ‘Siona in Paris’ (1919). Myriam Harry was Shapira’s second daughter.
  2. Photography was rare in the 1860’s. Many of the photographs used here are from the 1890’s. Many are from the Matson Photo Service, which helped fund the philanthropic work of The American Colony in Jerusalem.
  3. Page 2
    1. There is only one known photograph of Shapira. It was found by novelist Shulamit Lapid in the archive of the Diakonie Evangelical welfare association in Düsseldorf.
    2. I started by using random pix of Victorians, then (from page 24 onwards), I “employed” actors:
      Shapira: Nick Offerman
      Selim: Taika David Waititi
      Clermont-Ganneau: Benedict Cumberbatch
  4. Page 6
    1. Ovals – only known photos of Rosetta with Augusta and with Myriam
    2. Gustave Doré – “The Creation of Light”
    3. Gustave Doré – “Solomon”
    4. Gustave Doré – “The Confusion of Tongues”
    5. Claude Conder – “Shapira’s Second Collection 1873”
  5. Page 7
    1. Shapira was born in 1830, son of Nethanel Isak, a student of the ‘Gaon of Vilna’.
    2. A joint Anglo-German Mission preached Protestantism to the Jews until they split, mostly because of nationalistic and colonial competition.
  6. Page 8
    1. Early steam propelled ships had kept their trusted sails
    2. The original photo is of Theodore Hertzel on deck, on his way to meet the Kaisar in Palestine, 1898
    3. Ships could not dock in the shallow waters of the Jaffa port. It was the common practice to throw passengers overboard, into the arms of a strong porters who stood in row boats, then taken ashore.
    1. Tamar Hindi street vendors were still seen in Jerusalem’s Old City until the mid-nineteen seventies.
  7. Page 9
    1. The road to Jerusalem – riding a mule, the journey took two days. The road was paved for carriages in 1869, honoring the visit of Frantz-Joseph. By carriage the journey took a day and a half.
    2. Nabi Samuel is shown here before it was destroyed in heavy fighting between the British and the Ottomans during the winter od 1917. The site was rebuilt by the Brits.
    3. Shapira arrived in Jerusalem in 1855. There were no buildings outside the walls. The gates were kept shut during nighttime until the 1860’s. Jaffa gate moat was filled in 1898 to enable the visiting Kaisar Wilhelm to enter by carriage. According to Muslim tradition, only a conquering king is allowed to enter the city on horseback..
    4. Menorah from the Arch of Titus
    5. CMJ – Christ Mission to the Jews, were agents of progress, running schools and hospitals. They tried to persuade the Jews to believe in Christ, so their church, near the Jaffa gate, has no cross, but a Menorah on the alter.
    6. The bell of CMJ was the first bell to be heard in Jerusalem since Crusaders. The bell gable was destroyed twice, during earthquakes.
    7. In 1838 the British established a Consulate in Jerusalem. Among the initial instructions for Vice Counsel, William Tanner Young, was to ‘afford protection to Jews generally’. This was further impressed by the second Counsel, James Finn, who was a staunch believer in Israel’s national destiny of Restoration. Finn was also a member of CMJ. Finn is credited with pioneering the establishment of the first agricultural settlement outside the walls of Jerusalem, Kerem Avraham in 1853 and Jerusalem’s first Library, known as the Jerusalem Literary Society in 1849.
  8. Page 10
    1. At the time, most of the Jews in the Holy Land were living on charity. They ostracized any member of their community who was interested in the Mission. The ‘House of industry’ enabled Jews to learn a profession and earn a living. Established In 1843, it trained in carpentry, shoemaking, printing and other skills. They were also taught reading, writing, arithmetic and Bible. The products from the House of Industry included olive wood souvenirs, creating a thriving tourist industry that continues to this day.
    2. Opposition to the Mission – Protestantism was not officially recognized in the Ottoman Empire and thus Protestants were not permitted to reside in Jerusalem, nor to own property. Local opposition also came from both Jewish and Muslim leadership as well as from the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches. Mission phobia was so violent that when a Jewish woman who died in CMJ hospital was buried in a Jewish cemetery, her body was exhumed. Her re-burial was enforced by the Ottomans. Jewish philanthropes funded schools and hospitals to compete with the Mission. Despite CMJ’s efforts, only a few Jews had converted.
  9. Page 11
    1. ‘Meshumad’ – literally meaning ‘destroyed’. Apostasy – the rejection of Judaism and conversion to another religion by a Jew is a grave sin. In Deuteronomy 13:6–11, it is stated: “If your very own brother, or your son or daughter, or the wife you love, or your closest friend secretly entices you, saying, “Let us go and worship other gods”… do not yield to him or listen to him. Show him no pity. Do not spare him or shield him. You must certainly put him to death. Your hand must be the first in putting him to death, and then the hands of all the people. Stone him to death… Then all Israel will hear and be afraid, and no one among you will do such an evil thing again.”
    2. The ‘Book depot’ – The Bible was foundational to the establishment of the London Jews Society (CMJ). Subsequently the Society established many Book Shops in the Holy Land. Interested enquirers could receive a free copy of the Hebrew Scriptures. In 1864 the LJS Report noted that 1900 Bibles had been given away during the year. Models by Conrad Schick were also exhibited in the Book Shops and became major attractions to visitors to Jerusalem.
  10. Page 12
    1. Rosetta Jockel, born 1824, was the daughter of a Hessian pastor from Stockhausen, in the Kaiserswerth. Her uncle – Theodor Fliedner, was the founder of the Deaconess Movement. He came to Jerusalem in 1851, established the German Deaconess Hospital in the Old City and the Talitha Kumi girls’ boarding school with Charlotte Pilz. Rosetta joined him in Jerusalem. The winter of 1861 was severe, with continuous rain and snow. Shapira went with two other mission trainees to bring milk from Kfar Shiloh. He caught pneumonia and had to be hospitalized. The Anglican Mission had a hospital in the old city, called ‘The Hospital for the Jews’, but since Jews were treated there, Shapira would have been persecuted for being a convert. Therefore, he was brought to the German Deaconess Hospital in the Armenian quarter (now the Maronite Church). Nurse Rosetta treated him with devotion and the two became close. Shapira recovered and the couple was married in April of 1861.
    2. Prussian protection – Germany was united in 1870 under Prussia
    3. CMJ funded Shapira’s trip to Russia, which shows that he was a very popular member of their community.
  11. Page 13
    1. Shlomo Guil identified the exact location of Shapira’s shop, on 76 Christian Street, in the old city of Jerusalem. He cross-referenced Myriam Harry’s description and nineteenth century photos. During Shapira’s time the shop had the full facade of the house, including the contemporary adjacent shops on both its sides.
    2. The emancipation reform of 1861 in Russia, effectively abolished serfdom throughout the Russian Empire. Until the reform, an estimated 38% of the population were ‘bonded peasants’, obliged to their landowner, who had great power over their lives. Despite their newly acquired freedom, the life of a serf remained grim. Many thousands of freed serfs went on a pilgrimage and walked from Russia to the Holy Land.
    3. With steamships began mass recreational travel. Their speed, reliable service and comfort appealed to the Western Middle class.
    4. ‘The Innocents Abroad, or The New Pilgrim’s Progress’ is a travel book by Mark Twain. Published in 1869, it humorously chronicles his five-month voyage through Europe and the Holy Land, with a group of American travelers in 1867.
    5. The book, which sometimes appears with the subtitle “The New Pilgrim’s Progress”, became the best-selling of Twain’s works during his lifetime,[3] as well as one of the best-selling travel books of all time historical context of the country’s desolation – cotton market slump because of USA civil war (Why? Egyptian cotton should have been in demand) cholera.
    6. Twain bought an olive wood covered Bible and dedicated it to his mother, but apparently he did not buy it at Shapira’s shop.
    7. Archeological frenzy to assert the Bible VS Darwin, PEF
  12. Page 14 – Oval shape of the stele, Egyptian Cartouche, Klein’s description, wrong reconstruction by CG
  13. Page 15
    1. No bridge on Jordan river
    2. Christian Bedouins (Beni-Hamideh?)
  14. Page 16
    1. Klein saw the stone exposed. According to Myriam Hari, Shapira was the one who had previously unearthed the stone during one of his many trips to the area.
    2. Klein probably didn’t travel back to JLM on the same night. Why didn’t he return to copy the inscription on the following morning? Was he already playing down the stone’s importance?
  15. Page 17
    1. Professor – who’s in the photo?
    2. Telegraph – when?
    3. Sultan Abdulaziz of the Ottoman Empire-Reign-1861-1876
    4. John Bull caricature – by whom?
    5. Franco-Prussian war, Napoleon III
    6. Napoleon III caricature – by whom?
    7. Gustave Doré – “Moses Comes Down from Mount Sinai”
  16. Page 18
    1. There is only one known photo of CG as young man + two as old
    2. photo of man in Fez – (?) Husseini – Mayor of JLM
  17. Page 19 – Lost leg – dramatic freedom
  18. Page 20
    1. political tension between Bedouins and Ottomans
    2. Ottoman – who?
    3. Arab angry gesture for “Cutting you up into small pieces”
    4. Gustave Doré – “The Flight of Lot”
    5. Head of Waren
    6. Questionable relationship between PEF and CG, decision to give pieces bought by Warren to CG. CG deported for smuggling antiques
  19. Page 21 – Assyrian imagery
  20. Page 22
    1. Gustave Doré – “Moses Comes Down from Mount Sinai”
    2. Rooster caricature – by whom?
    3. Legion of Honor medal
    4. Tourist at Louvre
  21. Page 24
    1. No known photo of Selim. Unknown Bedouin. Braids of Bedouin men
    2. Selim played by Taika David Waititi
  22. Page 25 – Shapira played by Nick Offerman
  23. Page 27 – “Street Theater” – carefully scripted harassment, designed to keep a target at a high stress level, but crafted so that outside observers are likely to wave the skits off as “the breaks”. The cumulative effect of such skits can be crushing to sensitive victims. Noise, crowding in person, stealing items and kids sent to hang out in front of, stare, make noise, in front of a victim
  24. Page 28
    1. Shapira holding Samaritan scroll
    2. Career as book seller
  25. Page 30
    1. Hand painted postcards
    2. Postal services
    3. photographers’ studio portraits
  26. Page 31
    1. Kavass – traditional role and current processions
    2. Cashbox /cash register – invented in USA in 1878, would not have been available in Shapira’s shop
    3. The image of Mark Twain, as if waiting for an olive wood cover of a Bible he had ordered, was actually taken on board a ship in 1897. It opens his book ‘Following the Equator’.
    4. Pressed flowers albums, souvenirs imported from Europe
    5. Orientalist dressing up in Arab garb
  27. Page 32
    1. Photographs by Waren
    2. Photo by Waren and drawings by Condor
    3. Modern photographs of “Shapira Heads” for “True Fake” exhibition
    4. Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia
  28. Page 33 – Waren’s Moabitic figurine
  29. Page 34 – Punch and Judy – wicked puppetry
  30. Page 35
    1. gun – license?
    2. Gustave Doré – detail from “Jeremiah”
    3. Gustave Doré – “Ezra in Prayer”
    4. Gustave Doré – detail from “Deborah”
  31. Page 37
    1. Bergheim the banker – Peter (Paul) Melville Bergheim, a German Jew who converted to Christianity – CMJ – Shapira’s friend, 1st banker in JLM, bought land in Gezer, son murdered by local Arabs, died bankrupt. His building part of municipality. Photographer, no portrait.
    2. Painting on the wall behind the desk: David Roberts – “Jerusalem”
  32. Page 38
    1. Ginsburg VS Tristram – see David Kennedy: ‘The British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) Expedition to Moab in 1872 – Ginsburg and Tristram: an old academic quarrel? in ‘Journeys Erased by Time: The Rediscovered Footprints of Travelers in Egypt and the Near East’
    2. Photos of Queen Victoria, Ginsburg and Tristram
    3. Tristram with rifle
  33. Page 39
    1. Moabit drawing by Condor
    2. Caricature of Kaiser Wilhelm I – by whom?
    3. Munchhausen – The Prussian Consul at Jerusalem, Baron von Munchausen
    4. Konstantin Schlottmann
    5. Ticho house and garden ~ 9 dunams
  34. Page 40 – The artistic genius of Salim in comparison to authentic statutes
  35. Page 41
    1. Clermont-Ganneau played by Benedict Cumberbatch
    2. Symbol of PEF
    3. Photo of Drake
    4. Current façade of Ticho house
    5. Drawings by Condor
  36. Page 42– genuine head found in Arad(?)
  37. Page 43 – Drawings by Condor and genuine figurines behind Condor and Schlottmann
  38. Page 44 – Karagöz and Hacivat
  39. Page 45
    1. Photo of Charles Dickens – though he traveled extensively over Europe and America, Dickens didn’t visit Jerusalem, let alone work at the consulate
    2. unknown Arab (?)
    3. “swore by Allah and the Triple Repudiation” – Shariah law for divorce. CG being cynical?
  40. Page 46
    1. Gustave Doré – “Baron von Münchhausen” X2
    2. Conrad Schick – Shapira’s teacher at CMJ, neighbor, probably friend. Only two known photos of him as an old man
  41. Page 47
    1. “Shapira Heads” – made of stone, not pottery, most with no inscriptions or in Greek, no mention of them at the time of the Moabite scandal. Where any sold by Shapira? Maybe made by Martin Bolus? Maybe later attribution: popular “Fake Shapira fakes”
    2. Portraits of Kautzsch and Socin and original title of their book
    3. Top right – Photo of Moabite figurine, collection of Hebrew U (?)
    4. Photo of young Kitchener and Moabite idol, PEF collection
    5. No Known photo of Boulos. Bottom left – unkown Victorian.
  42. Page 48
    1. Caricature by whom?
    2. Peter Bergheim sad end at Gezer
    3. Drake’s sad end – short life of nice man
    4. Gezer boundary inscriptions
    5. Photo of Ottoman municipality – of where?
    6. Antiques smuggled by CG
  43. Page 50
    1. Ticho house renovations. Facade of 62 HaNevi’im st.
    2. Photo of ceiling paintings – “clouds and birds” – maybe 2nd floor, maybe Harry’s false memory
    3. Photo of Sarona colony
    4. the ostrich – references from CG, Merrill Selah and neighboring orphans
  44. Page 51
    1. Hezekiah pool
    2. Mashrabiye – pre glass, privacy
  45. Page 52 – Center Left – Moabite figurines from collection of the Russian church on Mt. Scopus
  46. Page 53 – Talisman from Cairo Genizah
  47. Page 54
    1. Statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps
    2. Red sea sailing, described by Sir Richard Francis Burton – Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Meccah, published 1856. By sail, before Suez Canal
  48. Page 55
    1. Slavery in Jerusalem and Ottoman empire
    2. Slave trade in Red Sea
    3. British owned ship ‘Rokeby’
  49. Page 57
    1. Aden unknown villa posing as synagogue
    2. Interior of the synagogue? burnt in 1949?
  50. Page 58 – model of Cairo Genizah – ‘Anu’ museum
  51. Page 59
    1. Firkovich forger of Karaites in Russia before crucifixion, saved some from Nazis
    2. Only one known photo of Firkovich, as old man
    3. No known photo of Moshe Ben Avraham El-Kodsi. The young man is taken from a photo of a group of Karaites in Poland 1929
    4. Photo of Rabbi Refael Aharon Ben-Shimon, Chief Karaite of Cairo 1891
    5. British Pound notes – regulation history
    6. Illustration of Firkovich – by whom?
  52. Page 60
    1. Jacob Saphir (Hebrew: יעקב הלוי ספיר 1822-1886) was a writer, ethnographer, researcher of Hebrew manuscripts, a traveler and emissary. In 1848 he was commissioned to travel through the southern countries to collect funds. In 1854 he undertook a second tour, to collect funds for the construction of the ‘Hurva’ Synagogue. In 1859 He visited Egypt, Yemen, India and Australia. In 1868 he published a travel diary with a detailed description of Jewish life and history in Yemen. In the introduction he wrote:
      מליצי רעי! אחת אשאלכם מי האיש הירא ורך הלבב? אל יעבור עמדי מפה והלאה בתלאות העצומות והנוראות פן ירך לבבכם ופן בדמעי עיניכם תמסו את לבבי גם את ספרי. רק האיש אשר לבבו כלב הארי ועיניו כנחושה לא יחת ולא יחוש מפני כל הוא ילך עמי. נעלה ונרד על ההרים בין המצרים ועד השברים ונשרט את עורינו ובשרינו באבני המעמסה אשר על דרכנו זאת ואשר תפגרו ללכת שבו נא בזה. הוחילו עד אשר נשוב אליכם לשלום בעזה”י מקצה תשעה ירחים.
    2. Saphir was the first Jewish researcher to recognize the significance of the Cairo genizah. He wrote:
      במסע השנית קיץ תרכ“ד חזרתי ובקרתי פה כמה פעמים. על הביהכ”נ עולים מבחוץ במעלות דרך מבוא התאים ועזרת נשים ושם גניזה לספרים בלואים וקרועים וכי הגידו לי כי ישנה היא מאד בית מלא גנזי ספרים משנים קדמוניות. רציתי לחפש שמה אולי אמצא דבר מה והלכתי שמה יום ב’ דר“ח אייר אשר אז יושב שם הגבאי והשמש והביהכ”נ פתוח כל היום ובקשתי להראות לי הגניזה ולא רצו באמרם כי סכנה גדולה ונחש כרוך עליה. ובאתי עוד בר“ח סיון ואמרתי להם שיש לי רשות מהרב האב”ד נ“י והם שחקו עלי ואמרו היתכן שיסכן אדם בנפשו על לא דבר כי גם לא ישלים שנתו. התחננתי לפניהם והראתי להם שיש עמדי מזוזה קטנה לשמירה מעולה גם ידעתי לחש לנחש ולהשמש הבטחתי מתנה להביא לי סולם עד שאמרו לי לפני האנשים ההיו שם עדים אתם היום כי העדנו בהחכם הזה לבלתי יסכן בנפשו לעלות ולאחוז בהגניזה ואנחנו את נפשנו הצלנו. גם מהתראה הזאת לא נפל לבי ואמרתי טוב טוב עדים אתם היום. השמש הראה לי דרך העליה גם הביא לי הסולם למעלה כי הגניזה בבית מרובע על גג הביהכ”נ וסתום מארבע רוחותיה באין פתח בצדה והגג פתוח מלמעלה אשר שמה יניחו או יזרקו בלויי וקרועי הספרים. ועליתי בסולם והיא מלאה גובה שתי קומות וחצי אבל בעת תיקנו הביהכ“נ הניחו שמה מלמעלה גם כל הלוחות ושברי לוחות וגם ערימות עפר ואבנים וצרורות שנשפך שמה מהגג שנפתח. ואחרי עמלתי שני ימים ונמלאתי אבק ועפר בררתי והעליתי כמה דפים מספרים שונים ישנים וכ”י ולא מצאתי בם תועלת וידיעות ומי יודע מה יש עוד למטה כי נלאתי לחפש אבל גם נחש שרף ועקרב לא מצאתי ואסון לא נגע בי ברוך המציל
    3. Only one known photo of Sapir, as old man
    4. No known connection between Yakov Sapir and Shapira, but they lived in Jerusalem at the same time. Artistic freedom.
    5. In Yemen, Sapir bought the Al-Ousta codex – a 14 C Bible and sold it to the French national library.
    6. Illustrations by Ephraim Moses Lilien
  53. Page 61
    1. Simulation of the Third Temple
    2. Backgammon photo – based on Stuart Freedman
    3. Survivor of pogrom in Kiev, 1919
    4. Actually, Sapir moved to Jerusalem in 1836, a year before the earthquake…
    5. Photo of earthquake – Nablus 1927
    6. Illustration by Ephraim Moses Lilien
  54. Page 62
    1. Stormy Sea at Night- painting by Ivan Ayvazovsky – 1849
    2. Magen David Synagogue, Byculla, Mumbai. Built in 1861
    3. Albanian prisoners (?)
    4. Interior – Abuhav synagogue, Safed
    5. Illustration by Ephraim Moses Lilien
    6. Money caricature by Thomas Nast
  55. Page 63
    1. Travel poster by J. Daviel
  56. Page 64
    1. Photo of Yom Tov Cherezli
    2. Facade of Karaite synagogue in Cairo. I don’t know whether the genizah was in the basement
    3. The handshake was a popular motif in Victorian tombstones
    4. The Bode Museum in Berlin, was built from 1898 to 1904.
  57. Page 65
    1. The photo of the Cairo train station shows a tram, introduced in 1910.
    2. Charing Cross 1890 – motor powered bus
    3. ‘Bathsheba’ – “Sadness” by Julia Margaret Cameron
  58. Page 66 – title page – “Tower of David” by David Roberts
  59. Page 67
    1. Snow – when?
    2. CMJ School – when?
    3. Gustave Doré – “Dante in the Gloomy Wood”
    4. English Church Missionary Society Hospital, Jan 1944
  60. Page 68
    1. Gustave Doré – “Hubris” from “Paradise Lost”
    2. Gustave Doré – “The destruction of Leviathan” + addition
    3. “Sunday Afternoon with Father” from “The Mothers’ Companion”, Vol IX, published in 1895 by S W Partridge & Co, London.
  61. Page 69
    1. Gustave Doré – “Heliodorus Is Cast Down”
    2. The Mosaic zodiac of the Beit Alpha synagogue was discovered in 1928 by my maternal grandfather – Shimon Leblang, a member of Kibbutz Beit Alpha, while digging an irrigation canal from the Ein Harod spring.
    3. Clock Spiral – ISTOCK
  62. Page 70 – title page – Detail from Simson’s drawing of Shapira scroll
  63. Page 71
    1. Sheikh Makhmud Arikat of the village of Abu Dis was historically known as the manager of protection to all Westerners traveling to the Jordan river and Transjordan. As Shapira had frequently traveled there, they became friends. It was customary to visit and celebrate friends’ return from a long trip, like a pilgrimage to Mecca. Sheikh Arikat visited Shapira upon his return from his trip to Yemen.
    2. The name of the Bedouin who sold the scrolls to Shapira is mentioned as Salim of the Ajayah tribe. There was no such Bedouin tribe in the area East of the Dead Sea at the time. The name might have been misspelled. The tribe might have been the Hazaza, who still have a bad reputation as people “who would kidnap their own mother-in-law”. Other tribes may have been the Al-Daje or the Ajarmeh.
    3. I changed the Bedouin’s name to Sliman to avoid confusion between him and Salim Al-Kari.
    4. Ottoman prison – where?
    5. American Colony. Bedouin blind fold game – what is the exact name?
    6. American Colony. “Petra. Petrean types, etc. Bdul Bedouins. Performing an incantation over a sick man”
  64. Page 72
    1. Muslim coffin at (name?) graveyard
    2. Ottoman prisoners – where?
  65. Page 73
    1. Photo of Shapira strip
    2. Based on photo of James Tabor holding reproduction of Shapira scroll
    3. One of the original pages of Shapira transcripts, in purple ink. Donated by Rosetta to Berlin Museum
    4. Detail from Simson’s drawing of Shapira scroll
    5. Gustave Doré – “Moses Comes Down from Mount Sinai” – variation
  66. Page 74
    1. Gustave Doré – “Moses Comes Down from Mount Sinai” – variation
    2. Transcript of scroll – drawn by whom?
    3. Portrait of Konstantin Schlottmann
    4. Gustave Doré – “They beseech that Moses might report to them his will and terror cease” from Milton’s “Paradise Lost”.
    5. Charlton Heston as Moses in Cecil B. DeMille’s “The Ten Commandments”, 1956 film. Charlton Heston “Moses” prop Ten Commandments tablets from The Ten Commandments. Sold by JULIEN*S AUCTION HOUSE TO THE STARS in March 2024 for $36,250
      (Paramount, 1956) DeMille’s greatest film, and his last, has joined the pantheon of epic films revered from generation to generation. These prop Ten Commandments tablets, “written with the finger of God,” measure 23.5 x 12 x 1.25 in. and are constructed of richly hewn fiberglass over a wooden core. The “engraving” is accomplished in an early Canaanite script practiced in the late Bronze Age (c. 13th century B.C.) – Moses’ era. Paramount Studios scenic artist A.J. Ciraolo made them to appear slightly irregular with molded chips and dings and then hand-applied paint speckling to resemble the red granite of Mount Sinai – one of DeMille’s key requirements. This set of tablets was acquired from a studio secretary by the prop department during the making of The Ten Commandments. At the time of production, the secretary wandered through the prop shop, fell in love with the tablets and asked if she might have a pair. The prop master told her she could, but only after they’d been shot in their scene. After the scene was completed, the secretary returned and claimed this set of tablets and asked if a hook of some sort could be added for hanging; the prop master obliged by affixing wire hoops in the back of the tablets with fiberglass. These pieces retain the beautiful red and black-speckled patina of the Sinai-inspired granite, with engraved letters and nearly pristine edges. Overall, the tablets remain in exceptional condition. Comes with a letter of provenance.
    6. Ottoman silver coin – 1 Qirsh, minted 1878
    7. Prussian officer – August von Mackensen, “The Last Hussar”
    8. Painting on the wall behind the desk: David Roberts – “The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans”
  67. Page 75 – title page – Hermann Burchardt – Photo of Sana’a, 1901
  68. Page 76
    1. It is likely that Shapira read Burton’s “Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Meccah”
    2. Heinrich Kiepert mapped Greece and the Middle East in the 1840’s and 50’s. His atlases were very popular. Travelers would seek his advice before embarking on their trips. He would provide them with maps and ask them to record details of uncharted areas. “Most of Arabia was unexplored then, so even a modest description would be a blessing for us”. Shapira provided good data on distances and heights. He used an Aneroid Barometer. Kiepert published Shapira’s notes and mapped his trip.
  69. Page 77
    1. The steamer ‘Bengala’ crossed the Suez Canal five times 1879. The ship sank in the spring of 1889 off Capo Rizzuto, near Crotone, Italy. Francesco Rosasco at the command. Two crew members drowned. The rest were saved. Currently, the wreck is a popular diving site. I found no photograph of Francesco Rosasco. Shown here is Captain Ole Grankel from Norway.
    2. In 1841 the Ottoman law required all who travelled in the Ottoman Empire beyond the district (kaza) level to have a permit. By requiring all subjects moving within the borders of the empire to possess a mürûr tezkeresi, the central state could more clearly delineate between forms of mobility – trade, labor, and pilgrimage vs. banditry, smuggling, and vagrancy. The law also made a strict distinction between domestic and international mobility, requiring Ottoman subjects seeking to travel abroad to obtain special permission from the central government.
    3. ‘Romantic Observations’ by Henry A. Bacon.
    4. ‘The Departure’ by Henry A. Bacon.
    5. “When we two parted” by George Gordon Byron
  70. Page 78
    1. The Jambiya, also spelled Janbiya, is a short, curved dagger, that originated from Yemen. The straighter variation of the blade is known as a Shibriyeh.
    2. Desert photos are of the Sinai, by American Colony
  71. Page 79
    1. Shapira translated his journal from Hebrew, so that Kiepert could publish “Schapira’s Reise in Jemen”, in 1880, in ‘Globus’ XXXVIII.
    2. Shapira’s journal was not preserved. Show here are notes in my hand writing.
    3. Sir Richard Burton described the Ottoman rule in Arabia: “The Holy Land of Al-Hijaz drains off Turkish gold and blood in abundance. The lords of the country hold in it a contemptible position… If they catch a thief, they dare not hang him. They pay black-mail, and yet be shot at in every pass. They affect superiority over the Arabs, hate them and are despised by them… Such is the result of the Tanzimat, the silliest copy of Europe’s folly – bureaucracy and centralization… The greatest of all its errors was that of appointing to the provinces, instead of a single Pasha of the olden time, three different governors: civil, military and fiscal, all depending upon the supreme council at Constantinople. Thus each province has three plunderers instead of one, and its affairs are referred to a body that can take no interest in it… These remarks were written in 1853~ I see no reason to change them in 1878.”
    4. Sana’a is one of the highest capital cities in the world. at an elevation of 7,200 ft (2,200 meters). It is unclear why Shapira measured Sana’a at 6,700 ft.
    5. The Ottoman officer sitting on a camel was photographed in Jerusalem.
  72. Page 80
    1. The Old City of Sana’a is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, for its unique and distinctive architectural character.
    2. The photo of the well, pulley and leather bucket is of a Tuareg in the Sahara.
  73. Page 81
    1. ‘Saqiyah’ diagram by Shalom Kweller.
    2. The photos of a camel drawing water from a deep well, and a man pouring water were taken in Palestine.
    3. Sana’a has been facing a severe water crisis, with water being drawn from its aquifer three times faster than it is replenished. Water in drawn by mechanical pumps from wells 1,200 meters deep. The city is predicted to run completely out of water by around 2030, making it the first national capital in the world to do so.
  74. Page 82
    1. In the beginning of the technological competition of car development, the steam engine was considered safer and more reliable than the petroleum-based engine. Water and coal were much more accessible than petroleum.
    2. The 1878 Jacquot ‘Tonneau a Vapeur’ (Steam barrel) car was designed and built by the engineer Louis LeJeune. Its two-cylinder steam engine and elegant design made it very popular.
    3. According to the Wikipedia page on the Yemen Vilayet, the Ottoman governor Mustafa Asim Pasha (April 1875 – April 1879) was replaced by Botgoriceli Ismail Hakki Pasha (December 1879 – December 1882). Shapira had left Yemen in September – months before Ismail Hakki Pasha had been appointed. Their meeting and friendship are fictional.
    4. The image of the general, first angry then happy, is based on a photograph of Mirliva (Major General) Hafız İsmail Hakkı Paşa (1878-1915). He was an officer in the Ottoman Army who rose to the rank of Major General. He commanded troops during the Balkan Wars and the First World War.
    5. Photographed on the donkeys are The Beatles, on a beach in Weston-super-Mare, England, 22nd July 1963. Weeks before they became headline news, the band spent six days in Weston-super-Mare in 1963. Pete Swaysland was working as a donkey boy when The Beatles went for a ride. “They were larking about and I thought ‘what a strange bunch of lads with long hair and strange accents”
    6. The Mauser Model 1871 was the German Army’s first repeating rifle, of which over a million examples were produced. It was adopted by the Ottoman Empire.
    7. Shown in the photograph with his children is Kuchuk Jamal Pasha. The photo was taken at St. George’s Cathedral, Jerusalem. Cemal Mersinli (1875–1941), also known as Mehmed Djemal Pasha, Mersinli Djemal, or Djemal Kuchuk. Turkish: Küçük Cemal Paşa; meaning the lesser Djemal, to distinguish him from the higher-ranking Djemal Pasha. He was a general of the Ottoman and Turkish armies, a politician of the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey.
  75. Page 83
    1. Ahmed Eyüb Pasha served as Governor of Yemen in 1873. Photographed with his son, nervously standing in front of some nasty looking Yemenis.
    2. Ghazi Mukhtar Pasha was a prominent Ottoman field marshal and Grand Vizier, who served in the Crimean and Russo-Turkish wars. Between 1870 and 1871, he quelled rebellions in Yemen. Ahmed Muhtar Pasha was appointed as Grand Vizier in July 1912 at age 72.
    3. Paul Gaudin was a French railroad engineer, sent to Turkey in 1892 to work on railroad lines. He was the Director of the Smyrne-Cassaba line and the Hedjaz Railway.
    4. “The Progress of the Century – The Lightning Steam Press. The Electric Telegraph. The Locomotive. The Steamboat.” Illustration by Currier & Ives – 1876
    5. Followers of the Houthi demonstrate against the Saudi-led air strikes on Yemen, in Sanaa on April 1, 2015. Photo by Khaled Abdullah Ali Al Mahdi / Reuters.
    6. Panorama of Constantinople in the 1880’s by Guillaume Berggren.
  76. Page 84
    1. Mural showing the Queen of Sheba (detail), Chapel of the Four Living Creatures, in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
    2. Jacob Sapir wrote:
      Please stand and let me tell you of our brothers who are sighing and moaning in the land of their enemies, their exile and humiliation, their teachings, their faith, their craft and their art, their behavior, their custom and their history, which I have collected in the few days that I have been researching and visiting, seeing and hearing, so that you may pray for mercy on them. The Jews who have lived in this land of Yemen for many hundreds or thousands of years, are now at downtrodden, oppressed by harsh and savage masters, cruel and unmerciful. (The Muslim) who call themselves a holy nation are sanctified and purified, while and the Jews are treated as prophane. The Muslim berate the Jew: “Don’t come near me and don’t touch me, but I will demand your blood because it is pure. Your silver and gold are mine, and whatever you own give to me – bring it or I will take it.” They forbid the Jews to live with them in their fortified cities, lest they will defile them. Jewish life and property are defenseless. All over the country, the Jews sit in cave like darkened house, with small openings and windows, for fear of burglars and night robbers.
    3. The photograph of Yemenite Jews walking to Aden, on their way to Israel, 1949, Kluger Zoltan.
    4. The burnt page is from Psalms chapters 126 and 127: “The Lord hath done great things for us; whereof we are glad. Turn again our captivity, O Lord, as the streams in the south. They that sow in tears shall reap in joy. He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him. Except the Lord build the house, they labour in vain that build it: except the Lord keep the city, the watchman waketh but in vain. It is vain for you to rise up early, to sit up late, to eat the bread of sorrows: for so he giveth his beloved sleep. Lo, children are an heritage of the Lord: and the fruit of the womb is his reward. As arrows are in the hand of a mighty man; so are children of the youth. Happy is the man that hath his quiver full of them: they shall not be ashamed, but they shall speak with the enemies in the gate.”
    5. The photograph of three armed men, Druze of Lebanon, from ‘Popular costumes of Turkey in 1873’, published under the patronage of the Ottoman Imperial Commission for the Vienna Universal Exhibition
  77. Page 85
    1. Photograph of Synagogue in Sana’a and Yemenite Jew by Hermann Burchardt 1901.
    2. Rabbi Hayyim Habshush (Hebrew: חיים בן יחיא חבשוש, 1833–1899) was a coppersmith by trade and a noted historiographer of Yemenite Jewry. He also served as a guide for the Jewish-French Orientalist and traveler Joseph Halévy. After his journey with Halévy in 1870, he was employed by Eduard Glaser and other later travelers to copy inscriptions and to collect old books.
    3. In 31.05.23, a ceremony was held at the Western Wall Plaza in Jerusalem in which Torah scrolls that were worn out over the years were brought to the Genizah on the nearby Mount of Olives. The ancient Torah books were from different periods, the oldest were estimated to be 150 years old. Some of the scrolls had survived the First World War and the Holocaust, have arrived from Poland, Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary. The books were used by the millions of worshipers at the Western Wall for decades, until they were worn out and disqualified. The ceremony was led by the Chief Rabbi of Israel, the Rabbi of the Western Wall, the Minister of Jerusalem and Israel’s Tradition, the Minister of Religions, several Jerusalem neighborhood Rabbis, the CEO of the Western Wall Heritage Foundation and, a large crowd. The ‘Nernana’ choir sang songs of emotion and longing in honor The Torah and its scholars.
    4. The photograph of the synagogue was taken by Yihye Haybi in the 1930s’. The photograph of a young Yemenite Jew is his self-portrait.
    5. Shalom Alshech (שלום אלשיך הלוי , 1859–1944) was the bright son of the leader of Yemenite Jewry. At the age of 25 he was an expert in Torah and Kabbalah. In 1880 Jews were permitted to visit Jerusalem for three months. Abraham Alshech, Shalom’s brother, was one of the first Yemenite Jews to immigrate. Shalom Alshech visited him two years later. In 1880, he tried to immigrate Palestine. He traveled to the port of Al-Hudaydah with his parents, his wife and children and his brother’s wife and children. The governor prevented them from leaving Yemen. Shalom Alshech wrote a petition to the Sultan, who granted his request. He eventually settled in Jerusalem in 1892 and was the chief Rabbi of the Yemenite community in the city.
    6. James Finn was the British Consul in Jerusalem between 1846–1863.He was a devout Christian who believed in promoting Christianity amongst the Jews and helping them become productive. In 1853 purchased for £250 Karm a vineyard outside the walls of the Old City, where he established an agricultural training farm for Jews. In 1855, he employed Jewish labourers to build a home for himself there. It was the third building constructed outside the walls of the Old City.Finn also built cisterns for water storage and a soap factory that produced high quality soap sold to tourists. Finn also helped establish an experimental farm for poor Jews of Jerusalem, in the village of Artas, near Bethlehem.
      Sir Moses Haim Montefiore was a British financier and banker, activist and philanthropist who donated large sums of money to promote industry, business, economic development, education and health among the Jewish community in the Levant. He founded Mishkenot Sha’ananim in 1860, the first Jewish settlement outside the Old City of Jerusalem.
      In 1881 Pogroms swept Russia. Hundreds of thousands of Jews were forced to leave their homes, some of these came to Jerusalem. In desperation, many of them turned to CMJ for help. Rev. Arthur Hastings Kelk took in some seventy refugees, providing shelter, food, clothing and medical assistance. Gradually the Sanatorium site on Prophets’ Street became a sanctuary for the destitute Jews. Tents were pitched, wooden huts erected and an emergency fund was set up. Tens of the refugees, most of them supported families, were employed as laborer’s in improving the grounds. Many of the children were educated at the school. Rev. Kelk set out to establish Christian agricultural colonies for the refugees. In 1883 1,250 acres of land were purchased near ancient Beit Shemesh, and 200 refugees were settled in the Artouf colony. By 1883 some 700 refugees had been involved with the CMJ. The girl in the photograph is shown picking almonds in Artouf.
  78. Page 86
    1. Rabbi Yihye Kapa: “Many members of our community sold old books which they inherited from their ancestors to gentiles who came to the land of Yemen, like Moses son of Nathaniel who sat in the house of our teacher and master, Abraham Zalah. He himself sold him holy Yemenite books, Prophets and Writings with the translation of Yonatan ben Uziel on the Prophets, and the translation of Rabbi Sa’adya Gaon in Arabic on Isaiah and Psalms. He also sold him a Mishna with Maimonides’ commentary in Arabic, the Order of Kodashim, an elaborate script with illustrations of our holy, splendid Temple and the holy vessels in Tractate Middot. I saw it with my own eyes in his hand, myself and the deceased Yihye Korah, our master and teacher of blessed memory (may his memory merit the world to come) and we were helpless, unable to take it away from him.”
    2. ‘Come to Palestine’ – Poster for the Society for the Promotion of Travel in the Holy Land by Ze’ev Raban, 1929
    3. The photograph of the desecrated Synagogue is of the 1929 riots in Hebron.
    4. Photograph of Yemenite Jew in Jerusalem. In 1881 Jews from Yemen immigrated to Jerusalem. When they came to the city, they encountered difficulties because they had no one to take care of their livelihood, and since the other Jews in the city doubted their Jewishness at first. Most of them wanted to stay close to the remains of the Temple, and so they lived in caves, on Mount of Olives. With the help of the association, land was donated on the western side of the Mount of Olives. With help from Jewish philanthropist, a plot of land was purchased and a settlement was founded, called “Yemeni Village”. Three rows of houses were built with a large water cistern. Later, an adjacent plot was purchased, on which additional buildings were built, including five synagogues and a clinic. The residents of the Jewish village were attacked during the 1921 and 1929 riots. Eventually the village was deserted, as the British Mandate authorities could not protect them from the hostile Arabs. Photograph by American Colony (Jerusalem). Photo Dept.
  79. Page 87
    1. Photograph of Yemeni on donkey by William Carter, 1964
    2. Photograph of sailboat – the Dhow – Observers from the first century BCE to the Victorian era have commented on sewn dhows, which were stitched rather than nailed. Using coir ropes, builders sewed planks together at their edges, then reinforced the hull with ribs. Inside, coir padding pressed on the joints to prevent leaking. Sewn dhows had more flexible hulls and were prized for their resiliency navigating the coral reefs prevalent on the east African coast. Sewn dhows routinely took long-haul routes between east Africa and China, though the technology fell into disuse by the 1930s. Kenya c. 1900, Photographer unknown. Courtesy the Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies Winterton Collection, Northwestern University
    3. Shapira on a deck chair is based on a photo of Mark Twain, which opened his book ‘Following the Equator’, 1897. His quote, written below the photograph: “Be good and you will be Lonesome”.
    4. Photograph of the parrot of Sultan Abdülhamid II, 1900s. Written in Arabic in the comics balloon: “Shut Up!”
  80. Page 89
    1. The photograph of the arrogant youth fits the role of the person who discovered the most important Biblical inscription in the Holy Land. Though the actual Jacob Eliahu was brilliant – fluent in five languages, with a partial knowledge of several others, he was a modest fellow. Bertha Spafford Vester, Jacob’s adoptive sister, wrote that he often told the thrilling story of the Siloam Inscription, but said that the discovery was made by “a school boy.” He seldom mentioned the well-known fact that he was that boy.
    2. The couple shown were Jews from Jerusalem. The photograph is from ‘Popular costumes of Turkey’ by Osman Hamdi Bey, in 1873. The work was published under the patronage of the Ottoman Imperial Commission for the Vienna World’s Fair. The same commission asked Conrad Schick to build an exhibition model of the Temple Mount for the Fair. Schick was permitted to conduct extensive surveys of the area usually off-limits to non-Muslims. The model, built at CMJ’s House of Industry, accurately reveals the ancient subterranean passages, vaults, and cisterns under the Temple Mount. Schick’s model was housed at the St Chrischona Seminary in Basel, Switzerland. In 2011 it was purchased by Christ Church.
    3. The burial cave shown is ‘The Sidonian’ family tomb in Beit Guvrin. Animals, real and mythic, were painted above the niches where the corpses were laid. The crows scare away demons; the three-headed dog Cerberus guards the entrance to the underworld and the phoenix symbolizes the afterlife.
    4. The stairs lead down to the Gihon Spring. Its name in Arabic is ‘Mother of the stairs’. In English it is called ‘Fountain of the Virgin’. Next shown is the arched entrance to the steep stairs. Shown on the bottom-right is the Siloam pool, on the South-Western end of the tunnel. The three Photographs by American Colony (Jerusalem), Photo Dept.
    5. Illustration by Ephraim Moses Lilien
    6. The child on the bottom center is shown crawling in one of many tunnels prepared for the Bar Kokhba revolt. Photograph by Yoav Negev.